Forts and Batteries
The forts and batteries of the Kaunas Fortress consisted of a singular system of many durable and temporary structures during the war.
The Kaunas Fortress forts were built in three stages:
- The first ring 1882-1888 (construction of forts I-VII)
- Fortress modernization 1889-1912 (forts VIII and IX, modernization of the old forts).
- The second ring of forts (1912-1914)
Shelters, underground bunkers, and other World War I fortifications.