Forts and Batteries

The forts and batteries of the Kaunas Fortress consisted of a singular system of many durable and temporary structures during the war.

Old Fortifications

Forts

The Kaunas Fortress forts were built in three stages:

  1. The first ring 1882-1888 (construction of forts I-VII)
  2. Fortress modernization 1889-1912 (forts VIII and IX, modernization of the old forts).
  3. The second ring of forts (1912-1914)

Stationary Batteries

Shelters, underground bunkers, and other World War I fortifications.

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